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State Provisions Regarding Racial Discrimination

Many states have established their own rights related to protection of civil rights, including racial discrimination. Several of these states have established agencies or delegated authority to existing agencies to handle civil rights claims. In some states, civil rights law preempts other ordinary tort actions and in many cases limits the amount of recovery available to litigants with complaints related to violations of civil rights.

ALABAMA: Alabama has not enacted legislation dealing specifically with civil rights.

ALASKA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission for Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is one year.

ARIZONA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Advisory Board. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is generally two years.

ARKANSAS: Private actions are permitted, except for those related to discrimination in public employment. Causes of action are not preempted by administrative action.

CALIFORNIA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Department of Employment and Housing. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is three years.

COLORADO: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted for some causes of action, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is sixty days.

CONNECTICUT: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities. Private actions are permitted, and only certain causes of action are preempted by administrative action.

DELAWARE: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Relations Commission or Department of Labor. Some private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is one year.

FLORIDA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission for Human Relations. Private actions are not permitted, and causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is eighty days.

GEORGIA: Some private causes of action are permitted, but none is preempted by administrative action.

HAWAII: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Commission or Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs. Private actions are not permitted, and causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is ninety days.

IDAHO: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is two years.

ILLINOIS: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission and Department of Human Rights. Some private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

INDIANA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action.

IOWA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

KANSAS: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Rights. Some private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations for civil rights actions vary depending on the complaint.

KENTUCKY: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

LOUISIANA: Louisiana civil rights statutes are limited to those regarding the handicapped.

MAINE: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is six months.

MARYLAND: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Relations. Private actions are not permitted, and causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is six months.

MASSACHUSETTS: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission Against Discrimination. Some private actions are permitted, and some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

MICHIGAN: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action.

MINNESOTA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Department of Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is one year.

MISSISSIPPI: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Home Corporation Oversight Committee. Private actions are not permitted, and causes of action are preempted by administrative action.

MISSOURI: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission on Human Rights. Some private actions are permitted, and some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

MONTANA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission for Human Rights. Some private actions are permitted, and some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary de pending on the complaint.

NEBRASKA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Equal Opportunity Commission. Private actions are permitted, but some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

NEVADA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Equal Rights Commission, Labor Commission, or Banking Division. Private actions are permitted, but some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

NEW HAMPSHIRE: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission for Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

NEW JERSEY: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Division on Human Rights. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

NEW MEXICO: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, but causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

NEW YORK: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Division of Human Rights, Banking Department, or State Human Rights Appeal Board. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is usually one year.

NORTH CAROLINA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Relations Commission. Private actions are not permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action.

NORTH DAKOTA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Department of Labor. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

OHIO: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Civil Rights Commission. Some private actions are permitted, and causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

OKLAHOMA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are not permitted, and causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

OREGON: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Bureau of Labor and Industries. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is one year.

PENNSYLVANIA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

RHODE ISLAND: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission for Human Rights or the Department of Labor. Some private actions are permitted, and some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

SOUTH CAROLINA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Affairs Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

SOUTH DAKOTA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Commission of Humanities. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

TENNESSEE: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

TEXAS: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Department of Human Resources. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action.

UTAH: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Antidiscrimination Division. Some private actions are permitted, and some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

VERMONT: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

VIRGINIA: Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

WASHINGTON: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Washington State Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is six months

WEST VIRGINIA: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Human Rights Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is 180 days.

WISCONSIN: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Department of Industry, Labor, and Human Relations. Some private actions are permitted, and some causes of action are preempted by administrative action. The statutes of limitations vary depending on the complaint.

WYOMING: Complaints for relevant civil rights violations are submitted to the Fair Employment Commission. Private actions are permitted, and causes of action are not preempted by administrative action. The statute of limitations for a civil rights action is two years.


Inside State Provisions Regarding Racial Discrimination