Many studies have shown a relationship between school segregation and residential segregation. If whites and minorities are segregated in the areas in which they live, the schools in these areas are more likely to be segregated as well. As noted above, some efforts to desegregate schools focused on busing students from proportionately black areas to proportionately white areas. Even these efforts, however, do not address the problem with segregation in housing. Congress passed the Fair Housing Act in 1968 to prohibit real estate sellers, landlords, and others from discriminating on the basis of race. However, this Act was not enforced or applied routinely for several years, and proving discrimination in housing can be difficult. Though the legal mechanisms to prevent discrimination are in place, societal changes are likely to be necessary to eradicate discrimination in this area.